3 minute read

Developmental Disabilities

Conclusion

The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed revolutionary changes in philosophy, values, and attitudes toward and rights of persons with developmental disabilities. The period of 1950 to 2000 can be characterized as being devoted to securing the civil rights of individuals with developmental disabilities and their families. The movement—a collaboration of parents, professionals, and self-advocates—has emphasized acceptance of people as people in their own right with whatever limitations are part of that disability. The emphasis on securing rights occurred in a context that, for the most part, discounted efforts regarding search for treatment that would ameliorate a disability as evidence of a lack of acceptance of the person with a disability.


Bibliography

American Association on Mental Retardation. (1992). Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports, 9th edition. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Barsch, R. H. (1968). The Parent of the Handicapped Child: The Study of Child Rearing Practices. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Dybwad, G. (1969). "Action Implications, U.S.A. Today." In Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, ed. R. B. Kugel and W. Wolfensberger. Washington, DC: President's Committee on Mental Retardation.

Edgerton, R. B. (1988). "Community Adaptation of People with Mental Retardation." In Understanding Mental Retardation: Research Accomplishment and New Frontiers, ed. J. F. Kavanagh. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Edgerton, R. B.; Bollinger, M.; and Herr, B. (1984). "The Cloak of Competence: After Two Decades." American Journal of Mental Deficiency 88:345–351.

Farber, B. (1960). "Family Organization and Crisis: Maintenance of Integration in Families with a Severely Mentally Retarded Child." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 25 (1).

Hartley, R., and Robinson, C. (1987). "Mental Retardation." In Mental Health-Psychiatric Nursing (A Continuum of Care), ed. J. Norris, M. Kunes-Connell, S. Stockard, P. M. Ehrhart, and G. R. Newton. New York: Wiley.

Keith, D. K., and Schalock, R. (2000). Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Quality of Life. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Krajicek, M. J. (1982). "Developmental Disability and Human Sexuality." Nursing Clinics of North America 86:223–234.

Kugel, R. B., and Wolfensberger, W. (1969). Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded. Washington, DC: President's Committee on Mental Retardation.

Olshansky, S. (1962). "Chronic Sorrow: A Response to Having a Mentally Defective Child." Social Casework 43:191–194.

Pelka, F. (1997). The ABC-CLIO Companion to the Disability Rights Movement. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Robinson, C.; Rosenberg, S. A.; and Beckman, P. J. (1988). "Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education." In Early Childhood Special Education: Birth to Three, ed. J. B. Jordan, P. L. Hutinger, J. J. Gallagher, and M. B. Karnes. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children and Division for Early Childhood.

Rosenberg, S. A., and McTate, G. (1982). "Intellectually Handicapped Mothers: Problems and Prospects." Children Today 2:14–26.

Schilling, R.; Schinke, S.; Blythe, B.; and Barth, R. (1982). "Child Maltreatment and Mentally Retarded Parents: Is There a Relationship?" Mental Retardation 20: 201–209.

Solnit, A., and Stark, M. (1961). "Mourning and the Birth of a Defective Child." Journal for the Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 16:523–537.

Wikler, L. M. (1986). "Family Stress Theory and Research on Families of Children with Mental Retardation." In Families of Handicapped Persons: Research, Programs, and Policy Issues, ed. J. J. Gallagher and P. M. Vietze. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Wolfensberger, W. (1967). "Counseling the Parents of the Retarded." In Mental Retardation: Appraisal, Education, and Rehabilitation, ed. A. A. Baumeister. Chicago, IL: Aldine-Atherton, Inc.

Wolfensberger, W. (1969). "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models." In Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, ed. R. B. Kugel and W. Wolfensberger. Washington, DC: President's Committee on Mental Retardation.


Other Resource

Family Voices: Family and Friends Speaking on Behalf of Children with Special Health Care Needs. (2002). Available from http://www.familyvoice.org.

CORDELIA ROBINSON

Additional topics

Marriage and Family EncyclopediaPregnancy & ParenthoodDevelopmental Disabilities - Causes Of Developmental Disabilities, How Do Different Countries Treat People With Developmental Disabilities?, Impact On The Marital Relationship And The Family