2 minute read

Housework

Future Of Housework

Women do most of the unpaid labor around the world, although their housework hours have declined, and their husbands' proportionate contributions have increased. Women still bear a double burden of work inside and outside the home. To ease this burden, families with adequate incomes are increasingly purchasing goods and services. Families with wives employed full-time are more likely to eat at restaurants, and employed wives are more likely than nonemployed wives to purchase cleaning services (Oropesa 1993). Women's labor force participation may be fueling an expanded global service economy, but workers in service positions are relatively disadvantaged themselves and are typically forced to accept minimum wage jobs and to forego providing direct daily care to their own children and families. Patterns of housework allocation are thus linked to patterns of gender, class, and race stratification in the larger society (Coltrane and Collins 2001). Ultimately, relieving the negative consequences of unbalanced divisions of housework for women will require men to assume equal responsibility in the home, as women assume equal responsibility for earning income.


Bibliography

Baxter, J. (1997). "Gender Equality and Participation in Housework: A Cross-National Perspective." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 28:220–247.

Blair, S. L. (1992). "Children's Participation in Household Labor: Child Socialization Versus the Need for Household Labor." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 21:241–258.

Carrington, C. (1999). No Place Like Home: Relationships and Family Life Among Lesbians and Gay Men. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Coleman, M.; Ganong, L.; and Fine, M. (2000). "Reinvestigating Remarriage: Another Decade of Progress." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:1288–1307.

Coltrane, S. (2000). "Research on Household Labor: Modeling and Measuring the Social Embeddedness of Routine Family Work." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:1208–1233.

Coltrane, S., and Collins, R. (2001). Sociology of Marriage and the Family: Gender, Love, and Property. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Cowan, R. S. (1983). More Work for Mother. New York: BasicBooks.

DeVault, M. L. (1991). Feeding the Family: The Social Organization of Caring as Gendered Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Glenn, E. N.; Chang, G.; and Forcey, L. R. (1994). Mothering: Ideology, Experience, and Agency. New York: Routledge.

Hochschild, A. R. The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. New York: Viking.

Lennon, M. C., and Rosenfield, S. (1994). "Relative Fairness and the Division of Housework: The Importance of Options." American Journal of Sociology 100:506–531.

Oropesa, R. S. (1993). "Using the Service Economy to Relieve the Double Burden." Journal of Family Issues 14:438–473.

Sanchez, L. (1994). "Material Resources, Family Structure Resources, and Husband's Housework Participation: A Cross-National Comparison." Journal of Family Issues 15:379–402.

Schor, J. B. (1991). The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: BasicBooks.

Seltzer, J. A. (2000). "Families Formed Outside of Marriage." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:1247–1268.

Strasser, S. (1982). Never Done: A History of American Housework. New York: Pantheon Books.

United Nations. (2000). The World's Women 2000: Trends and Statistics. New York: United Nations Publications.

MICHELE ADAMS

SCOTT COLTRANE

Additional topics

Marriage and Family EncyclopediaRelationshipsHousework - History Of Housework, What Is Housework?, Housework Performance, Predictors Of Men's Sharing