Friendship is, in many respects, a "comfortable" love relationship. Friendships involve as little or as much intimacy as the partners are inclined to express at any given time. Friends are not normally obligated to exchange benefits, but do so in ways that are often so natural as to be unwitting. The ties that bind them are by unfettered mutual consent. In spite of its being so comfortable, in fact because of it, friendship contributes in unique ways to personal development and well-being.
Adams, R. G., and Allan, G. (1998). "Introduction: Contextualising Friendship." In Placing Friendship in Context: Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences, ed. R. G. Adams and G. Allan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Adams, R. G., and Blieszner, R. (1996). "Midlife Friendship Patterns." In A Lifetime of Relationships, ed. N. Vanzetti and S. Duck. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Bell, S., and Coleman, S., eds. (1999). The Anthropology of Friendship. Oxford, UK: Berg.
Berndt, T. J. (1996). "Friendship in Adolescence." In A Lifetime of Relationships, ed. N. Vanzetti and S. Duck. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Carrier, J. G. (1999). "People Who Can Be Friends: Selves and Social Relationships." In The Anthropology of Friendship, ed. S. Bell and S. Coleman. Oxford: Berg.
Douvan, E., and Adelson, J. (1966). The Adolescent Experience. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Doyle, A.B., and Markiewiscz, D. (1996). "Parents' Interpersonal Relationships and Children's Friendships." In The Company They Keep, ed. W.M. Bukowski, A.F. Newcomb and W.W. Hartup. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dubois, C. (1974). "The Gratuitous Act: An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Friendship Patterns." In The Compact: Selected Dimensions of Friendship, ed. E. Leyton. St. John's, Newfoundland: Institute of Social and Economic Research.
Field, D. (1999). "Continuity and Change in Friendships in Advanced Old Age: Findings from The Berkeley Older Generation Study." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 48:325–346.
Gouldner, H., and Strong, M.S. (1987). Speaking of Friendship. New York: Greenwood.
Hayes, R. B. (1984). "The Development and Maintenance of Friendship." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 1:75–98.
Howes, C. (1996). "The Earliest Friendships." In The Company They Keep, ed. W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb and W. W. Hartup. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Krappmann, L. (1996). "Amicitia, Drujba, Shin-yu, Philia, Freundschaft, Friendship: On the Cultural Diversity of Human Relationship." In The Company They Keep, ed. W.M. Bukowski, A.F. Newcomb, and W.W. Hartup. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Leyton, E., ed. (1974). The Compact: Selected Dimensions of Friendship. St. John's, Newfoundland: Institute for Economic and Social Research.
Little, T. D.; Brendgen, M.; Warrner, B.; and Krappmann, L. (1999). "Children's Reciprocal Perception of Friendship Quality in the Sociocultural Contexts of East and West Berlin." International Journal of Behavioral Development 23:63–89.
Matthews, S. H. (1996). "Friendships in Old Age." In A Lifetime of Relationships, ed. N. Vanzetti and S. Duck. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Mickulincer, M., and Selinger, M. (2001). "The Interplay Between Attachment and Affiliation Systems in Adolescents' Same-sex Friendships." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 18:81–106.
Monsour, M. (2002). Women and Men as Friends: Relationships Across the Life Span in the 21st Century. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Paine, R. (1969). "In Search of Friendship: An Exploratory Analysis of 'Middle-Class' Culture." Man 4:505–524.
Rawlins, W. K. (1992). Friendship Matters. New York: Aldine.
Rose, A. J., and Asher, S. R. (2000). "Children's Friendships." In Close Relationships: A Sourcebook, ed. C. Hendrick and S. S. Hendrick. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Schneider, B. H.; Smith, A.; Poisson, S. E.; and Kwan, A. B. (1997). "Cultural Dimensions of Children's Peer Relations." In Handbook of Personal Relationships, 2nd edition, ed. S. Duck. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Selman, R. L. (1981). "The Child as a Friendship Philosopher." In The Development of Children's Friendships, ed. S. R. Asher and J. M. Gottman. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: Norton.
Suttles, G. D. (1970). "Friendship as a Social Institution." In Social Relationships, ed. G. J. McCall. New York: Aldine.
Uhl, S. (1991). "Forbidden Friends: Cultural Veils of Female Friendships in Andalusia." American Ethologist 18:90–105.
Wright, P. H. (1978). "Toward a Theory of Friendship Based on a Conception of Self." Journal of Human Communication Research 4:196–207.
Wright, P. H. (1985). "The Acquaintance Description Form." In Understanding Personal Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. S. Duck and D. Perlman. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
PAUL H. WRIGHT