Starting with the 1960s, the research on parenting has evolved from a focus on global parenting styles, which were assumed to be employed consistently by parents across situations and to vary in systematic ways across cultures, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic statuses. This notion has given way to a more differentiated and transactive view of parenting and child development. In current research, it is assumed that parents may use different disciplinary techniques, parenting practices, and emotional strategies that are affected by the contexts of parenting, cultural beliefs, situational demands, and characteristics of the child. More research will be needed to understand how these interact and moderate each other to influence children's competence and development.
See also: ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT; ANXIETY DISORDERS; ATTACHMENT: PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS; ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD); BOUNDARY DISSOLUTION; CHILD ABUSE: PHYSICAL ABUSE AND NEGLECT; CHILD ABUSE: PSYCHOLOGICAL MALTREATMENT; CHILD ABUSE: SEXUAL ABUSE; CONDUCT DISORDER; CONFLICT: PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS; COPARENTING; DEVELOPMENT: MORAL; DEVELOPMENT: SELF; DISCIPLINE; FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION; FATHERHOOD; GAY PARENTS; LEISURE; LESBIAN PARENTS; MOTHERHOOD; OPPOSITIONALITY; PARENTING EDUCATION; POWER: FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS; SELF-ESTEEM; SPANKING; STEPFAMILIES; TEMPERAMENT; THERAPY: PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS
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JUDITH G. SMETANA