3 minute read

Parenting Styles


Starting with the 1960s, the research on parenting has evolved from a focus on global parenting styles, which were assumed to be employed consistently by parents across situations and to vary in systematic ways across cultures, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic statuses. This notion has given way to a more differentiated and transactive view of parenting and child development. In current research, it is assumed that parents may use different disciplinary techniques, parenting practices, and emotional strategies that are affected by the contexts of parenting, cultural beliefs, situational demands, and characteristics of the child. More research will be needed to understand how these interact and moderate each other to influence children's competence and development.


Barber, B. K. (1996). "Parental Psychological Control: Revisiting a Neglected Construct." Child Development 67:3296–3319.

Barber, B. K. (2002). Intrusive Parenting: How Psychological Control Affects Children and Adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Baumrind, D. (1971). "Current Patterns of Parental Authority." Developmental Psychology Monographs 4 (I, part 2).

Baumrind, D. (1989). "Rearing Competent Children." In Child Development Today and Tomorrow, ed. W. Damon. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Chao, R. (1994). "Beyond Parenting Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting Through the Cultural Notion of Training." Child Development 65:1111–1119.

Darling, N., and Steinberg, L. (1993). "Parenting Style as Context: An Integrative Model." Psychological Bulletin 113:486–496.

Eisenberg, N. (1998). "Prosocial Development." Handbook of Child Psychology, 5th edition, Vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development, ed. N. Eisenberg (W. Damon, Series Editor). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Fung, H. (1999). "Becoming a Moral Child: The Socialization of Shame among Young Chinese Children." Ethos 27:80–209.

Grusec, J. E., and Lytton, H. (1988). Social Development: History, Theory, and Research. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Hoffman, M. L. (1982). "Development of Prosocial Motivation: Empathy and Guilt." In Development of Prosocial Behavior, ed N. Eisenberg. New York: Academic Press.

Hoffman, M. L. (1983). "Empathy, Guilt, and Social Cognition." In The Relationship Between Social and Cognitive Development, ed. W. F. Overton. Hillsdale, NY: Erlbaum.

Kuczynski, L. (1984). "Socialization Goals and Mother- Child Interaction: Strategies for Long-Term and Short-Term Compliance." Developmental Psychology 20:1061–1073.

Maccoby, E. E. (1992). "The Role of Parents in the Socialization of Children: An Historical Overview." Developmental Psychology 28:1006–1017.

Maccoby, E. E., and Martin, J. (1983). "Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-Child Interaction." In Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 4: Socialization, Personality, and Social development, ed. E. M. Hetherington. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Miller, P. J.; Fung, H.; and Mintz, J. (1996). "Self- Construction Through Narrative Practices: A Chinese and American Comparison of Early Socialization." Ethos 24:237–280.

Smetana, J. G. (1995). "Morality in Context: Abstractions, Ambiguities, and Applications." In Annals of Child Development, Vol. 10, ed. R. Vasta. London: Jessica Kinglsey Publishers.

Smetana, J. G. (1997). "Parenting and The Development of Social Knowledge Reconceptualized: A Social Domain Analysis." In Parenting and the Internalization of Values, ed. J. E. Grusec and L. Kuczynski. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Steinberg, L. (1990). "Interdependency in the Family: Autonomy, Conflict, and Harmony in the Parent-Adolescent Relationship." In At the Threshold: The Developing Adolescent, ed. S. S. Feldman and G. R. Elliot. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Steinberg, L. (2001). "We Know Some Things: Parent- Adolescent Relationships in Retrospect and Prospect." Journal of Research on Adolescence 11:1–19.

Tangney, J. P. (2001). "Constructive and Destructive Aspects of Shame and Guilt." In Constructive and Destructive Behavior: Implications for Family, School, & Society, ed. A. C. Bohart and D. J. Stipek. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Tangney, J. P., and Fischer, K. W. (1995). Self-Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride. New York: Guilford Press.

Walbot, H. G., and Scherer, K. R. (1995). "Cultural Determinants in Experiencing Shame and Guilt." In Self Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride, ed. J. P. Tagney and K. W. Fischer. New York: Guilford Press.

Wiley, A. R.; Rose, A. J.; Burger, L. K.; and Miller, P. J. (1998). "Constructing Autonomous Selves Through Narrative Practices: A Comparative Study of Working-Class and Middle-Class Families." Child Development 69:833–847.


Additional topics

Marriage and Family EncyclopediaPregnancy & ParenthoodParenting Styles - Parenting Styles, Cultural And Ethnic Variations In Parenting Styles, Differentiating Parenting Styles And Parenting Practices