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American-Indian Families

Conclusion

The interrelationships between European Americans and American Indians have sometimes been smooth and sometimes conflicted. American Indian families are very diverse according to which tribe they belong to. In fact, it can safely be said that there is as much diversity within American Indians as there is between American Indians and other groups. There are more than 500 federally recognized tribes in the United States, and families are very diverse according to which tribe they belong to. Despite the lack of universal practices and dialects, there are some commonalities among the various tribes and American-Indian families. For example, there is a shared history of oppression that still affects contemporary families in the United States, much as it affected earlier generations.


Bibliography

Allen, P. G. (1986). The Sacred Hoop. Boston: Beacon Press.

Beach, F. C. (1910). The Americana. Vol. 8. New York: Scientific American Compiling Department.

Brown, L. B. (1997). Two Spirit People: American Indian Lesbian and Gay Men. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.

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Hanson, W. (1980). "The Urban Indian Woman And Her Family." Social Casework (October) 476–483.

John, R. (1988). "The Native American Family." In Ethnic Families In America, ed. C. Mindel, R. Habenstein, and R. Wright. New York: Elsevier.

Kawamoto, W. T., ed. (2001). "Understanding American Indian Families." American Behavioral Scientist 44(9):1443–1535.

Miller, J. B. (1986). Toward a New Psychology of Women, 2nd edition. Boston: Beacon Press.

Myers, Joseph A., ed. (1981). They Are Young Once But Indian Forever. Oakland, CA: American Indian Lawyer Training Program, Inc.

Nabokov, P. (1999). Native American Testimony, rev. edition. New York: Penguin.

Red Horse, J. G.; Lewis, R.; Feit, M.; and Decker, J. (1978). "Family Behavior of Urban American Indians." Social Casework (February):67–72.

Red Horse, J. G. (1980). "Family Structure and Value Orientation in American Indians." Social Casework (October):462–467.

Silvey, L. E. (1997). "Ordinal Position and Role Development of the Firstborn Daughter Within Her Family of Origin." Dissertation. Lansing: Department of Family and Child Ecology, Michigan State University.


Other Resources

Indian Health Service. (2002). Trends in Indian Health 1998-99. Available from http://www.his.gov/PublicInfo/Publications/trends98/trends98.asp.

U.S. Government. (2001). 2000 Decennial Census. Available from http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www.2001/raceqandas.html.


LE ANNE E. SILVEY

Additional topics

Marriage and Family EncyclopediaMarriage: Cultural AspectsAmerican-Indian Families - General Points Of Interest, Boarding Schools, Family Life Today, American-indian Child Welfare