As with all institutions, families in Africa have undergone significant transformations over the years (Bledsoe 1990), and the family in Ghana has gone through a series of transformations. For example, HIV/AIDS posed a challenge to the working-age population and fostering and living arrangements. The infection also compromises the family support systems as young adults become afflicted and die before their parents. Also, economic hardship brought a rise in international migration, thus further destabilizing the family. More important, family size will continue to decline as the economy weakens and contraceptive use rises. These changing conditions all represent a challenge to which the Ghanaian family of the twenty-first century must respond.
Amoateng, Y., and Heaton, T. (1989). "The Socio-Demographic Correlates of the Timing of Divorce in Ghana." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 20:79–96.
Ardayfio-Schandorf, E., ed. (1995). The Changing Family in Ghana. Proceedings of the National Conference, Accra, Ghana, January 25–27. Ghana Universities Press.
Aryee, F. "Nuptiality Patterns in Ghana." In Demographic Patterns in Ghana: Evidence from the Ghana Fertility Survey, ed. S. Singh, J. Owusu, and I. Shah. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
Bledsoe, C. (1990). "Transformations in Sub-Saharan African Marriage and Fertility." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 510:115–125.
Boateng, D. (1995). "The Changing Family and National Development in Ghana." In The Changing Family, ed. E. Ardayfio-Schandorf. Ghana Universities Press.
Bruce, J.; Lloyd, C.; and Leonard, A. (1995). Families in Focus: New Perspectives on Mothers, Fathers and Children. New York: The Population Council.
Caldwell, J. (1982). A Theory of Fertility Decline. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Caldwell, J., and Caldwell, P. (1987). "The Cultural Context of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa." Population and Development Review 13(3):409–438.
Cohen, B. (1998). "The Emerging Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa." World Development 26(8):1431-1461.
Dodoo, F. (1993). "Insights into Spousal Differences in Reproductive Dis/agreement." Sociological Focus 26(3):257–270.
Dodoo, F. (1998). "Marriage Type and Reproductive Decisions: A Comparative Study in Sub-Saharan Africa." Journal of Marriage and the Family 60(1):232–242.
Ezeh, A. (1993). "The Influence of Spouses' Over Each Other's Contraceptive Attitudes in Ghana." Studies in Family Planning 24:163–174.
Gage, A., and Njogu, W. (1994). Gender Inequalities and Demographic Behavior. New York: The Population Council.
Gaisie, S., and de Graft Johnson, K. (1976). The Population of Ghana. Committee for International Coordination of National Research in Demography (CIRCRED) Series.
Ghana Statistical Service. (1999). Ghana: Demographic and Health Survey: A Summary Report, 1998. Accra, Ghana.
Ghana Statistical Service (2000). 2000 Population and Housing Census. Provisional Results. Accra, Ghana.
Ghana Statistical Service and Macro International, Inc. (1994). Ghana Demographic and Health Survey 1993. Accra, Ghana, and Calverton, MD.
Isiugo-Abanihe, U. (1985). "Child Fosterage in West Africa." Population and Development Review 11(1):53–73.
Lloyd, C., and Gage-Brandon, A. (1993). "Women's Role in Maintaining Households: Family Welfare and Sexual Inequality in Ghana." Population Studies 47(1):115–131.
Lockwood, M. (1995). "Structure and Behavior in the Social Demography of Africa." Population and Development Review 21(1):1–32.
Oheneba-Sakyi, Y.; Awusabo-Asare, K.; Gbortsu, E.; and Aryee, F. (1995). Female Autonomy, Decision Making, and Demographic Behavior Among Couples in Ghana. Potsdam, NY and Accra, Ghana.
Oheneba-Sakyi, Y., and Takyi, B. (1991). "Sociodemographic Correlates of Breastfeeding in Ghana." Human Biology 63(3):389-402. Oppong, C. (1983a). "Women's Roles, Opportunity Costs and Fertility." In Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries, ed. R. Bulatao and R. Lee. New York: Academic Press.
Oppong, C., ed. (1983b). Female and Male in West Africa. London: George Allen and Unwin.
Takyi, B. (2001). "Marital Stability in an African Society: Exploring the Factors that Influence Divorce Processes in Ghana." Sociological Focus 34 (1):77–96.
Takyi, B.; Kitson, G.; Miller, N.; and Oheneba-Sakyi, Y. (2000). "Reconsidering the Mate Selection Processes in Ghana." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Family Relations. Minneapolis, MN, November 11.
Takyi B., and Oheneba-Sakyi, Y. (1994). "Customs, Practices, Family Life and Marriage in Contemporary Ghana, West Africa." Family Perspectives 28(4):257–281.
Takyi, B., and Oheneba-Sakyi, Y. (1997). "Gender Differentials in Family Size among Ghanaian Couples." Journal of African and Asian Studies 32(3–4):1–11.
Timaeus, I., and Reynar, A. (1998). "Polygynists and Their Wives in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Analysis of Five Demographic and Health Surveys." Population Studies 52:(2)145-162.
van de Walle, E., and Meekers, D. (1994). "Marriage Drinks and Kola Nuts." In Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Contemporary Anthropological and Demographic Perspectives, ed. C. Bledsoe and G. Pison. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
BAFFOUR K. TAKYI