The social meanings of reproduction phenomena are constructed differently depending on the given sociopolitical context. Local and global political tendencies as well as different social hierarchies have an impact on the reproductive health of populations and individuals (Inhorn and Whittle 2001). Gender, race, and nation mediate individuals' power, personal agency, and choices relating to their reproductive health (Krieger et al. 1993). Genetic endowment and the physical and social environments (for example, environmental pollutants and occupational exposures) also affect the reproductive health of both women and men. There are various medical procedures that may increase a person's fertility and enable the birth of a wanted child. But emotionally and economically the best solution for infertility is the prevention of infertility at different levels of everyday life.
See also: ABORTION; ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES; BIRTH CONTROL: CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS; BIRTH CONTROL: SOCIOCULTURAL AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS; CHILDLESSNESS; FAMILY PLANNING; FATHERHOOD; INDUSTRIALIZATION; MENARCHE; MENOPAUSE; MOTHERHOOD; PREGNANCY AND BIRTH; SEXUALITY IN ADULTHOOD; SURROGACY
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