Comprehensive reviews of the literature on the development of antisocial behavior and conduct problems suggest that prevalence and incidence is highest among children and adolescents within the United States (Dishion, French, and Patterson 1995). However, several longitudinal studies have been conducted outside of the United States that are integral to the development of theory, for example, in London (West and Farrington 1977), Finland (Pulkkinen 1996), Norway (Olweus 1979), New Zealand (Fergusson and Horwood 2002), and Sweden (Stattin and Magnusson 1991). Although prevalence rates vary, the major models of etiology, symptom clustering, stability, and longitudinal course over the lifetime show a high level of convergence across international contexts.
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