A Model Of Conduct Problems
Given the magnitude and breadth of difficulties experienced by children fitting the CD diagnosis, coupled with the costs of adolescent problem behavior to families, community, and society, there have been hundreds of studies of CD. Findings from carefully controlled intervention research combined with those of longitudinal investigations provide the best evidence of causality and offer suggestions regarding promising intervention strategies. Figure 1 summarizes a model that synthesizes the results of a several longitudinal and intervention studies.
A crucial issue that emerges from research on child and adolescent socialization is that the development of a behavioral repertoire is determined by a variety of interrelated factors. Multidirectional transactions between child genes, family environment, and the broader social and cultural ecology create a history of experience through which anti-social behavior is successively manifested and reinforced. Figure 1 illustrates this complexity, with bold arrows indicating effects demonstrated in both longitudinal and experimental intervention research.