Shyness And Adjustment
Another important issue that has not been fully resolved is the point at which shyness ceases to be an everyday problem common to many people and becomes a form of psychopathology. There is evidence that shyness is related to introversion and neuroticism more or less equally (Briggs 1988). However, although studies indicate a convergence between shyness and various diagnoses such as anxiety disorder, social phobia and avoidant personality, most research suggests that shyness results in such debilitating conditions in only a small number of cases (e.g., Prior et al. 2000). Moreover, shyness tends to be most seriously problematic during life transitions (e.g., going away to college or changing jobs) that require social skill and assertiveness to acquire new social networks and relationship partners as compared to more stable periods of life ( Jones and Carpenter 1986). Finally, there is also evidence that both "everyday" shyness and its variants of greater clinical significance can be successfully treated with psychological and other forms of intervention (Cappe and Alden 1986).
Asendorpf, J. B. (1989). "Shyness as a Final Common Pathway for Two Different Kinds of Inhibition." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:481–492.
Briggs, S. R. (1988). "Shyness: Introversion or Neuroticism?" Journal of Research in Personality 22:290–307.
Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiety. San Francisco: Feemon.
Buss, A. H. (1984). "Two Kinds of Shyness." In Self- Related Cognitions in Anxiety and Motivation, ed.
R. Schwarzer. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cappe, R. F., and Alden, L. E. (1986). "A Comparison of Treatment Strategies for Clients Functionally Impaired by Extreme Shyness and Social Avoidance." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54:796–811.
Caspi, A.; Elder, G. H., Jr.; and Bem, D. J. (1988). "Moving away from the World: Life-Course Patterns of Shy Children." Developmental Psychology 24:824–831.
DePaulo, B. M.; Dull, W. R.; Greenberg, J. M.; and Swaim, G. W. (1989). "Are Shy People Reluctant to Ask for Help?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56:834–844.
Eisenberg, N.; Fabes, R. A.; and Murphy, B. C. (1995). "Relations of Shyness and Low Sociability to Regulation and Emotionality." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68:505–517.
Garcia-Coll, C.; Kagan, J.; and Reznick, J. S. (1984). "Behavioral Inhibition in Young Children." Child Development 55:1005–1019.
Hansson, R. O. (1986). "Shyness and the Elderly." In Shyness: Perspectives in Research and Treatment, ed. W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, and S. R. Briggs. New York: Plenum.
Halford, K., and Foddy, M. (1982). "Cognitive and Social Skill Correlates of Social Anxiety." British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21:17–28.
Izard, C. E., ed. (1972). Patterns of Emotions: A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression. New York: Academic Press.
Jones, W. H., and Briggs, S. R. (1984). "The Self-Other Discrepancy in Social Shyness." In The Self in Anxiety, Stress, and Depression, ed. R. Schwarzer. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North Holland.
Jones, W. H.; Briggs, S. R.; and Smith, T. G. (1986). "Shyness: Conceptualization and Measurement." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51:629–639.
Jones, W. H., and Carpenter, B. N. (1986). "Shyness and Social Behavior." In Shyness: Perspectives on Research and Treatment, ed. W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, and S. R. Briggs. New York: Plenum.
Jones, W. H.; Cheek, J. M.; and Briggs, S. R., eds. (1986). Shyness: Perspectives on Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum.
Kagan, J.; Reznick. J. S.; and Snidman, N. (1988). "Biological Bases of Childhood Shyness." Science 240:167–171.
Morris, D.; Soroker, M.; and Burruss, A. (1954). "Follow- Up Studies of Shy Withdrawn Children: A. Evaluation of Later Adjustment." American Journal of Orthopsychology 24:743–754.
Phillips, S. D., and Bruch, M. A. (1988). "Shyness and Dysfunction in Career Development." Journal of Counseling Psychology 35:159–165.
Pilkonis, P. A., and Zimbardo, P. G. (1979). "The Personal and Social Dynamics of Shyness." In Emotions in Personality and Psychopathology, ed. C. E. Izard. New York: Plenum.
Plomin, R., and Rowe, D. C. (1979). "Genetic and Environmental Etiology and Social Behavior in Infancy." Developmental Psychology 15:62–72.
Porteus, M. A. (1979). "Survey of the Problems of Normal 15-Year-Olds." Journal of Adolescence 2:307–323.
Prior, M.; Smart, D.; Sanson, A.; and Oberklaid, F. (2000). "Does Shy-Inhibited Temperament in Childhood Lead to Anxiety Problems in Adolescence?" Adolescence 39:461–468.
Rubin, K. H.; Nelson, L. J.; Hastings, P.; and Asendorpf, J. (1999). "The Transaction between Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Shyness and Their Parenting Styles." International Journal of Behavioral Development 23:937–958.
Russell, D.; Cutrona, C. E.; and Jones, W. H. (1986). "A Trait-Situational Analysis of Shyness." In Shyness: Perspectives on Research and Treatment, ed. W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, and S. R. Briggs. New York: Plenum.
Simmons, R., and Rosenberg, R. (1975). "Sex, Sex Roles, and Self-Image." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 4:229–258.
WARREN H. JONES