Some degree of oppositionality is very frequent in two- to five- year-olds. Oppositional defiant disorder is a common problem displayed by 3 to 5 percent of young people in affluent Western countries such as the United States and Australia. Prevalence increases with age and is higher in males and among the poor and disenfranchised.
There is little epidemiological data about prevalence of this condition in non-Western cultures. Given the variation in child-rearing practices and the importance these have in the development and maintenance of oppositionality, it may be assumed that societies that discourage individualism have lower rates of oppositional disorder. However, epidemiological studies have revealed similar rates of behavioral problems to those reported in Western countries (Crijnen, Achenbach, and Verhulst 1999; Shen and Wang 1995).
Marriage and Family EncyclopediaOther Marriage & Family TopicsOppositionality - Oppositionality And Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Causal Factors, Epidemiology, Treatment, Family's Response To Oppositionality