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Failure to Thrive - Public Policy

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Governmental policies can improve maternal and child nutrition through public programs. In the United States, for example, in 2001 the WIC program served seven million participants at a cost of $4 billion. Programs to promote maternal nutrition and breast feeding can help to prevent undernutrition in children. Governmental policies can also help families buy food by providing money. All industrialized countries except the United States provide family allowances to parents to help with the costs of raising children. Many countries subsidize housing; cash benefits for maternity are available in more than 100 countries (Kamerman 1996). Such approaches indirectly help families feed their children. Provision of good nutrition to infants and young children is a basic responsibility of society. As Sir Winston Churchill said in 1943, "There is no finer investment for any community than putting milk into babies."


Bibliography

Baer, M. T. (1999). "Community Food and Nutrition Programs." In Failure to Thrive and Pediatric Undernutrition: A Transdisciplinary Approach, ed. D. B. Kessler and P. Dawson. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Benoit, D. (2000). "Feeding Disorders, Failure to Thrive, and Obesity." In Handbook of Infant Mental Health, 2nd edition, ed. C. H. Zeanah, Jr. New York: Guilford Press.

Birch, M. (1999). "Psychological Issues and Infant-Parent Psychotherapy." In Failure to Thrive and Pediatric Undernutrition: A Transdisciplinary Approach, ed. D. B. Kessler and P. Dawson. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Black, M. (1995). "Failure to Thrive: Strategies for Evaluation and Intervention." School Psychology Review 24:171–185.

Churchill, W. (1943). Quoted in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, 4th edition, ed. A. Partington. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Corrales, K. M., and Utter, S. L. (1999). "Failure to Thrive." In Handbook of Pediatric Nutrition, 2nd edition, ed. P. Q. Samour, K. K. Helm, and C. E. Lang. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

Drotar, D., and Robinson, J. (2000). "Developmental Psychopathology of Failure to Thrive." In Handbook of Developmental Psychopathology, 2nd edition, ed. A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, and S. M. Miller. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Frank, D. A., and Drotar, D. (1994). "Failure to Thrive." In Child Abuse: Medical Diagnosis and Management, ed. R. Reece. Philadelphia: Lean and Febiger.

Frank, D. A.; Silva, M.; and Needlman, R. (1993). "Failure to Thrive: Mystery, Myth, and Method." Contemporary Pediatrics (February):114–133.

Galler, J. R., and Ramsey, F. (1989). "A Followup Study of the Influence of Early Malnutrition on Development: Behavior at Home and School." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 28:254–261.

Institute of Medicine. (1996). WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria: A Scientific Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Kamerman, S. B. (1996). "Child and Family Policies: An International Overview." In Children, Families, and Government: Preparing for the Twenty-First Century, ed. E. F. Zigler, S. L. Kagan, and N. W. Hall. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Kedesdy, J. H., and Budd, K. S. (1998). Childhood Feeding Disorders: Biobehavioral Assessment and Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Kessler, D. P., and Dawson, P. (1999). Failure to Thrive and Pediatric Undernutrition: A Transdisciplinary Approach. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Lieberman, A. F.; Silverman, R.; and Pawl, J. H. (2000). "Infant-Parent Psychotherapy." In Handbook of Infant Mental Health, 2nd edition, ed. C. H. Zeanah, Jr. New York: Guilford Press.

Satter, E. (1987). How to Get Your Kid to Eat . . . But Not Too Much. Palo Alto, CA: Bull Publishing.

Shonkoff, J. P., and Phillips, D. A. (2000). From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Sturm, L., and Gahagan, S. (1999). "Cultural Issues in Provider-Parent Relationships." In Failure to Thrive and Undernutrition: A Transdisciplinary Approach, ed. D. B. Kessler and P. Dawson. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Yoos, H. L.; Kitzman, H.; and Cole, R. (1999). "Family Routines and the Feeding Process." In Failure to Thrive and Undernutrition: A Transdisciplinary Approach, ed. D. B. Kessler and P. Dawson. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

PETER DAWSON

LYNNE STURM

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