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Sandwich Generation - Definition, Prevalence, International Comparisons, Impact On The Family - Conclusion

development aging journal women middle


In the United States, from 1900 to 2000, life expectancy increased from 47 to 76 years. Similar improvements in the human life span occurred in other developed countries, such as Japan and Sweden. One consequence of humans living longer is an expanded population of older adults. This remarkable growth in the aging population has resulted in concern about the availability of family caregivers. Researchers consistently report that family members, especially female family members, provide the majority of instrumental and expressive care to their aging loved ones. Due to the social patterns of delayed parenting and increased female labor-force participation, a generation of middle-aged adults are becoming increasingly caught between the demands of child rearing and providing care to their aging parents. This trend, identified as the sandwich generation phenomenon, has become a topic of considerable research interest.


Although researchers disagree about the prevalence of the sandwich generation phenomenon, the demographic trends of delayed parenting and increased life expectancy are irrefutable. In order to accurately estimate the frequency of multigenerational caregiving and analyze the impact of this caregiving arrangement on the family system, a universal definition and more representative sample studies are needed.


Bibliography

Brody, E. M. (1985). "Parent Care as a Normative Family Stress." The Gerontologist 25:19–29.

Brody, E. M. (1990). Women in the Middle: Their Parent- Care Years. New York: Springer.

Chisholm, J. F. (1999). "The Sandwich Generation." Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 8:177–191.

Dautzenberg, M. G. H.; Diederiks, J. P. M.; Philipsen, H.; and Stevens, F. C. J. (1998). "Women of a Middle Generation and Parent Care." International Journal of Aging and Human Development 47:241–262.

Hamill, S. B. (1994). "Parent-Adolescent Communication in Sandwich Generation Families." Journal of Adolescent Research 9:458–482.

Ingersoll-Dayton, B.; Neal, M. B.; and Hammer, L. B. (2001). "Aging Parents Helping Adult Children: The Experience of the Sandwiched Generation." Family Relations 50:262–271.

Loomis, L. S., and Booth, A. (1995). "Multigenerational Caregiving and Well-Being: The Myth of the Beleaguered Sandwich Generation." Journal of Family Issues 16:131–148.

Miller, D. (1981). "The 'Sandwich' Generation: Adult Children of the Aging." Social Work 26:419–423.

Nichols, L. S., and Junk, V. W. (1997). "The Sandwich Generation: Dependency, Proximity, and Task Assistance Needs of Parents." Journal of Family and Economic Issues 18:299–326.

Raphael, D., and Schlesinger, B. (1994). "Women in the Sandwich Generation: Do Adult Children Living At Home Help?" Journal of Women and Aging 6:21–45.

Remennick, L. I. (1999). "Women of the 'Sandwich' Generation and Multiple Roles: The Case of Russian Immigrants of the 1990s in Israel." Sex Roles 40:347–378.

Schlesinger, B., and Raphael, D. (1992). "The Sandwich Generation: The Jewish Woman in the Middle: Stresses and Satisfaction." Journal of Psychology and Judaism 16:77–96.

Spillman, B. C., and Pezzin, L. E. (2000). "Potential and Active Family Caregivers: Changing Networks and the 'Sandwich Generation.'" Milbank Quarterly 78: 347–374.

Spitze, G., and Logan, J. (1990). "More Evidence on Women (and Men) in the Middle." Research on Aging 12:182–198.

Tebes, J. K., and Irish, J. T. (2000). "Promoting Resilience Among Children of Sandwiched Generation Caregiving Women Through Caregiver Mutual Help." Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community 20:139–158.

Ward, R. A., and Spitze, G. (1998). "Sandwiched Marriages: The Implications of Child and Parent Relations for Marital Quality in Midlife." Social Forces 77:647–666.

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